Wednesday, December 14, 2016


Titus has fielded many inquiries about our EcoShield liner. All literature associated with this product can be found on our website. The liner submittals show all of the ASTM & NFPA standards that the liner is in compliance with. EcoShield liners can be ordered as stand-alone rolls (seen in the table below):

The roll sizes above are the standard stock sizes, with custom sizes being available between the maximum roll widths of 60” in lieu of the standard 48” width. We also have EcoShield sample kits, which are packaged in a box that can have up to 8 liner samples. A custom insert highlights competitive advantages. Contact Titus Marketing for demo kits.

Some of the great benefits of EcoShield include:

·        Quiet operation: Cotton has excellent sound-absorbing qualities, and EcoShield meets the same acoustical performance of the Titus line of fiberglass-lined products.
·        Thermal protection: Outstanding insulation performance assists in conserving energy, without the potential health concerns associated with traditional fiberglass insulation.
·        High air-erosion tolerance: EcoShield meets the same standards as fiberglass. ASTM C1071.
·        Resists microbial growth: Treated with a patented EPA-approved fire retardant that limits fungus and mold growth. ASTM C1338, G21, and G22.
·        Resists dirt, debris, damage, and moisture: The durable non-woven facing provides resistance to dust, dirt, debris, moisture, and is available with foil facing as well.
·        No itch or skin irritation: Constructed of natural cotton fibers containing no harmful irritants and is safe to handle.
·        Exceeds Class A - Flame/Smoke: Surpassed Class A standards of 25/50 with actual EcoShield results being 5/10. ASTM E84.
·        Non-toxic: Patented fire-retardant treatment does not emit toxic fumes upon exposure to flame.

Airstream Surface

The Ecoshield surface that is exposed to the air stream is overlaid with a durable, fire-resistant facing that also provides additional strength. The liner facing is not only available in the black matte facing, but in foil facing as well in both ½” and 1” thicknesses. Ecoshield eliminates outgassing or Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) concerns, and includes an EPA registered anti-microbial biocide for mold and fungal inhibition that ensures the facing is safe for you and the environment.

Indoor Air Quality 

People have become more concerned about their IAQ when they have fiberglass in their HVAC systems. There has been a growing a trend toward eliminating fiberglass from the airstream.
Many owners and engineers require alternate liners in terminals and ductwork. Options for liners other than fiberglass are as follows:
·        Fibre Free™
·        SteriLoc™
·        UltraLoc™
·        EcoShield™

These liners remove fiberglass from the airstream, but there are financial/acoustical costs associated with them. Not having a liner would obviously be the least expensive of the options, but it would result in the highest acoustic penalty. Insulation is an excellent attenuator of HVAC sound.
Fibre Free™ is the least expensive of the liner options, but would increase the sound of the system by approximately 2 to 3 dB in each octave band.
SteriLoc™ covers the fiberglass fibers with foil scrim. They are a slightly higher cost alternative, but increase the sound of the system by approximately 4 to 6 dB in each octave band. There is also the potential that the foil scrim can get torn during installation, since it is a duct-board liner which is much denser and would expose the fiberglass to the airstream.
UltraLoc™, which sandwiches the fiberglass fibers between sheet metal, is the most expensive of the liner options and by far the heaviest. The sound increase of a double-wall terminal is dependent on unit design and airflow characteristics.
EcoShield™ allows you to take the fiberglass out of the airstream with no additional cost for the liner.
Suggested Specification
The terminal casing shall be minimum 22-gauge galvanized steel (20 gauge for fan-powered terminals), internally lined with ½-inch matte faced, natural fiber insulation that complies with ASTM C 1071 and NFPA 90A. The liner shall comply with ASTM G21 and G22 for fungi and bacterial resistance.
(Liner facing and thickness can be replaced in the above specification text to meet the different EcoShield types.)

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications (

Friday, December 2, 2016

Fan Filter Diffusers - The Solution for USP 797 and USP 800 Pharmacies

Fan filter diffusers (FFD) were introduced to the market in 1984 as a new solution in cleanroom applications. In situations where the use of conventional ducted modules is impractical or the air supply has insufficient static pressure to move the air through a HEPA filter, fan filter diffusers provide an excellent alternative.

In cleanroom design, the primary factor is contaminant removal and the cleanliness level, so moving the air is a major challenge. The volume of recirculated HEPA filtered air, including conditioned air to handle high cooling loads that are typical of many cleanrooms, can range from less than twenty to more than five-hundred air changes per hour. Fan filter diffusers are designed to address this situation by producing a laminar or unidirectional flow of clean air traveling downward at a velocity of 90-feet per minute, as measured 6” below the filter face.

Cleanroom manufacturing processes require a high level of air filtration to protect the raw materials and the end product from particulates that can damage the product or cause it to fail in use. Utilizing fan filter diffusers in cleanrooms prevents the infiltration of contaminants and also provides for the removal of particles generated by people and equipment in the work space. Typical cleanroom applications that utilize fan filter diffusers include:

  • Semiconductor Manufacturing 
  • Pharmaceutical Manufacturing 
  • Medical and Dental Device Manufacturing 
  • Digital Device Manufacturing 
  • Food Processing Plants 
  • Computer Manufacturing

Titus’ Fan Filter Diffusers … Low Energy, Low Sound and Low Profile

Titus offers a complete line of fan filter diffusers that can be used for new design or upgrading existing cleanroom environments. Each Titus FFD is a self-contained fan filter module that includes HEPA or ULPA filter, pre-filter, and fan speed control. Air circulation is maintained by using a lightweight, forward-curved fan, powered by a 120V or 277V 60Hz motor. Motor speed is adjusted by the solid-state speed control that is mounted on the top of the housing. Patented baffling technology ensures uniform airflow across the filter face and attenuates sound for one of the quietest fan filter diffusers in the industry. The room side replaceable option (R) provides quick and efficient replacement of the HEPA or ULPA filter while the diffuser remains in place. Room side replaceable diffusers are ideal for plenum areas with limited space or applications that require frequent filter changes.

Titus’ fan filter diffusers are also available with an electrically commutated motor (ECM) option. These units dynamically adjust themselves to maintain the set airflow, compensating for changes in static pressure, filter loading or other local conditions. Titus fan filter diffusers with an ECM can easily maintain cleanroom air levels exceeding the Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology’s recommended practices. Airflow is maintained so constantly and consistently that the need for future balancing is greatly reduced. The ECM option, along with the patented baffling system and forward curve fan, makes Titus fan filter diffusers intelligent, energy efficient and ultra-quiet.

Titus’ Fan Filter Diffuser Models:

·        FFD - Standard construction, PSC motor, HEPA or ULPA filters, 2’ x 2’, 3’ x 2’,  4’ x 2’ sizes
·        FFDE - Standard construction, ECM motor, HEPA filter, 2’ x 2’, 3’ x 2’,  4’ x 2’ sizes

·        FFDR - Room side replaceable filter, PSC motor, HEPA filter, 2’ x 2’, 3’ x 2’,  4’ x 2’ sizes
·        FFDER - Room side replaceable filter, ECM motor, HEPA filter, 2’ x 2’, 3’ x 2’,  4’ x 2’ sizes

·        FFDRA - Room side replaceable filter and PSC motor, HEPA filter, 2’ x 2’, 3’ x 2’,  4’ x 2’ sizes
·        FFDERA - Room side replaceable filter and ECM motor, HEPA filter, 2’ x 2’, 3’ x 2’,  4’ x 2’ sizes

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Titus' CB/Critical Environment Product Manager Matt McLaurin (

Friday, October 28, 2016

CT Linear Bar Grille Sizing

A common subject we deal with in application engineering involves the sizing of model CT linear bar grilles. Common inquiries include “If I want the outside dimensions to be        , how long of a unit should I order?” and “My customer needs to know how big of a hole to cut.” Although the catalog and submittals provide dimensions, we thought this might be a good opportunity to expound on the subject. It is helpful to refer to the CT border and frame details on Titus product catalog page F51.

All grilles are undersized from the nominal-duct dimensions in order to fit ductwork, and the linear units are no exception. The stack head is the part of the grille that is installed into the wall opening and associated ductwork or plenum. We start our sizing from the inside of the stack head because this is the business part of the unit through which the air passes and performance data is consistent regardless of the border width.

The inside of the linear bar grille stack head is undersized from the nominal, or duct dimension by ¾”. The floor frames, type 5 and 6, are the exception at 3/8". The undersized dimension represented in our marketing literature is D-¾”, or “Duct” minus ¾”. If a dimension is specified as 12, the inside of the stack head will be 11-¼”; This applies to the length and width of a unit. The outside or overall dimension is 11-¼” plus two border widths (Plus two mounting-frame widths for the combination frames that use both a border and frame).

Cut dimensions for mounting the units can vary from the loose fit of the specified D dimension to a tight fit of D-5/8”. The tighter fit is beneficial to the screw-mounting option as it provides the most overlap or “meat” into which the screw is installed, particularly for sheet-rock surfaces. The loose fit of a D cutout is flexible and should be used for combination frame & borders, spring-clip mounting, concealed-mounting, or to provide clearance for a plenum boot -- by others -- to be installed. Titus does not provide plenum boots for linear bar diffusers.

Floor frames (Type 5, 6 & 15) and combination frames that utilize a mounting frame (Types 1 through 4) are a little different in that the outside of the stack head or mounting frame correlates exactly to D. For these units, the cutout should be slightly oversized at D+1/8” to provide clearance for the weld beads at the corners of the frames.

There are two particular notes I would like to make involving narrow frame styles 7, 11 and 12. First, the type 11 and 12 frames offer a screw-mounting option (A). When the A option is used, it is important to consider upsizing the grille or making sure that the tight cutout used will provide a secure base for screw-mounting. If the D dimension is used, the screw holes provided in the frames may coincide with the opening; Installation becomes much more complicated. Concealed mounting is the preferable mounting option for these frames.
The type-7 frame does not offer the screw-mounting option, so a concealed fastening must be used. This frame style was originally designed for the type-4 combination frame, but the narrow border width makes it attractive to those desiring the least amount of exposed grille for aesthetic purposes. You will note that because of its primary use as the core of a combination frame, the D dimension actually falls outside the overall (O) dimension. Therefore, a unit size of 12" x 12” should not be installed in a 12" x 12” cutout. The tight fit cutout of D-1/2” should be used, or the unit needs to be oversized by 1/2” if the D cutout will be used.

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Titus' GRD Product Manager Mark Costello (

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

The Displacement Ventilation Solution

Displacement Ventilation (DV) is a cost-effective means of providing an optimal indoor environment by delivering cool supply air directly to the occupants in a space.

What are the benefits?

Displacement ventilation systems offer an effective, energy-efficient way of delivering freshly conditioned air and removing airborne pollutants to improve comfort and air quality. Indoor air quality is improved since the rising thermal plumes carry away contaminants toward the ceiling exhaust. Displacement ventilation can improve acoustics because of the low background noise caused by low supply air velocities and the remotely located cooling and delivery equipment.

How does it save energy?

There are several reasons behind the cooling energy savings with DV. First and foremost, the higher supply air temperature of 65°F greatly increases the potential for free cooling. Secondly, the higher supply air temperature also increases the efficiency of mechanical cooling equipment.

How to apply DV units?

Supply air must reach the occupied space at velocities comfortable for the occupant(s). The zone closest to the displacement ventilation unit with velocities exceeding 50 fpm is called “Near Zone” or “Adjacent Zone.” To achieve maximum room occupancy for each job application, the near zone has to be adjusted to a minimum. To ensure good comfort in the room, a flexible pattern controller pattern makes it possible to alter the adjacent airflow pattern.

How does the new Titus pattern controller work?

Titus engineering utilized their recent experience with displacement products and projects in which this technology was applied. The new pattern controller is an evolution from a single pattern controller to a cluster of metal controllers. Not only will this be a product quality improvement, it also simplifies the controller adjustment at the job site. Performance is not affected by the product change; so you will be able to continue using the performance data listed in the catalog. Titus was able to maintain the same application data by upgrading the deflection of the perforated area on the front covers.

We improved this product family to enhance quality and provide the most flexible product on the US market today. 

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Meghna Parikh, Titus' FC/BC/DV Product Manager ( 

Friday, August 19, 2016

The Case for Chilled Beams in Schools

We all know the importance of comfort in schools and comfort’s relationship with student performance. While temperature gets the lion’s share of attention, equally important are noise, humidity, and ventilation. Efforts to update standards to address noise, humidity, and ventilation have made it harder for traditional HVAC equipment to establish and maintain comfortable learning environments in schools.
Enter chilled beams.
In a chilled-beam system, zone-based hydronic heating and/or cooling devices complement the primary air ventilation system, enabling the optimization of all heating, cooling, and ventilation functions. Chilled beams are quiet, can reduce energy consumption and maintenance, and take up less ceiling-cavity space while contributing to conditions that increase occupant performance.
Think back to when you were a kid in math class. There probably were a number of distractions: a class clown, paper airplanes, someone passing notes.
One disruption that does not get the attention it deserves is unnatural or excessive background noise, which studies have shown can significantly hinder student performance. Conventional HVAC systems rarely meet prescribed background-noise-level requirements. ANSI/ASA S12.60, Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools, requires a maximum background-noise level of 35 dBA (about NC 27)—difficult, if not near impossible, to attain with traditional classroom HVAC equipment. Chilled beams do not rely on internal motors or blowers to recirculate and recondition room air and, thus, can be utilized to maintain HVAC background-noise levels in accordance with ANSI/ASA S12.60.
Humidity and Ventilation
HVAC systems that modulate supply airflow rate during occupied operation often do not maintain outdoor airflow rate within the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2013, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Additionally, with all air systems, minimum ventilation airflow rate establishes minimum supply airflow rate. During off-peak operation, this airflow rate exceeds what is required for cooling, necessitating the reheating of supply air before it enters a space.
Active chilled beams served by a dedicated outdoor-air system (DOAS) utilize ducted variable-temperature outdoor air to induce room air through an integral hydronic heat-transfer coil. Classroom cooling/heating demand is met by modulation of the rate of water flow through the coil while the rate of airflow remains constant. The coil’s effect on space conditioning allows ducted-airflow temperature to be reset seasonally, resulting in significant reheat energy savings.
Active beams can be located either within a ceiling grid or floor-mounted adjacent to an outside wall. When active beams are floor-mounted, ventilation air can be delivered to a classroom in a displacement-ventilation manner. This method of delivery can reduce classroom carbon-dioxide levels and the resultant risk of the spread of respiratory diseases by more than 50 percent.
Additional Benefits
Not only do chilled beams benefit students by being quieter and more adept at adjusting to fluctuating humidity and heat conditions, they benefit schools by reducing costs. While most conventional HVAC systems depend on the delivery of large volumes of air to condition classrooms, chilled-beam systems reduce ducted-air requirements by up to 60 percent by relying on their integral heat-transfer coils to offset the majority of space sensible-cooling and heating requirements. And because water is more efficient for space cooling and heating than air, chilled beams use considerably less energy overall than do other options.
In DOAS, chilled beams reduce classroom ducted airflow to the rates required for space ventilation and latent cooling, which allows for a constant volume of ventilation air. Also, they can contribute to the achievement of LEED certification through Energy and Atmosphere Credit 1, Optimize Energy Performance, and Indoor Environmental Quality Prerequisite 1, Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance.

(This article was published by HPAC Engineering to

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Ken Loudermilk, Titus' Senior Chief Engineer - Sales & Marketing (  

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Optimizing Healthcare Environment Spaces with Effective Airflow Design

Designing for healthcare patient and critical environment spaces is strongly dictated by strict environmental and safety standards. However, possibly one of the most important components that must be taken into consideration is the one you can’t see. Effective airflow design (EAD) not only helps meet airflow change and industry standards, but is critical in limiting the contraction of airborne illnesses and can reap considerable cost savings for facilities. When designing for healthcare facilities, it is important to abide by airflow and air quality standards, in particular for three priority rooms for EADs: Hybrid operating rooms, patient rooms and isolation rooms.

Standards and Approaches

To determine what airflow plan is right for a space, engineers first meet with a designer and give them a general layout for the room, diffuser size and placement, requirements for airflow and other details. Although the designed layout has a big impact, the effectiveness of an airflow design boils down to the velocity of the air through the space and what direction it is flowing. In the majority of spaces within the Healthcare environment the primary objective it to ensure the cleanest air is supplied first to the patient then into the remainder of the room and that it’s filtered before it circulates back into the area. As for requirements, most states (42) have adopted some version of the Facility Guidelines Institute (FGI) recommendations for healthcare facilities, but each administration has their own rules and regulations so it’s critical for those involved to be aware of what standard(s) they’re designing to.

Though it would not be a drastic shift, this individualistic approach among states to regulations may change within the next two decades as results of research projects are adopted into code. This research, commissioned by ASHRAE, FGI, and others entails determining how much airflow is needed to prevent contamination in certain spaces based on evidence rather than conjecture, which has been the standard practice. The  International Code Council (ICC) has formed an Ad Hoc Committee on Healthcare that is working to ensure standards and codes are not increasing the cost of construction and operation purely based on assumptions or outdated practices. This is a key area of focus, since 9 percent of the annual energy usage in the United States is dedicated to healthcare spaces; of that usage, HVAC is responsible for half.

 Finally, thermal comfort for is addressed in ASHRAE Standard 55. Since most regulations are concerned with airflow and air quality, thermal comfort is not a priority. However, a room’s temperature and humidity is important because it can impact recovery time of patients as well as the performance of the facility’s staff –   an overly cold or warm environment makes it difficult for surgical staff to perform at the highest level. ASHRAE Standard 170 also has stipulations as far as minimum and maximum humidity temperatures. While the scope of Standard 170 includes occupancy comfort, it should not be assumed that meeting the prescriptive design minimums will ensure compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55. Appropriate step must be taken to realize thermal comfort in the space for patients, as well as for visitors.

Hybrid Operating Rooms

Hybrid operating rooms (hybrid ORs) are surgical areas equipped with advanced medical imaging devices such as CT and MRI scanners. Incoming air should be HEPA-filtered to minimize the pathogens entering the space. Hybrid ORs have 30 percent more air changes per hour (ACH) than catheterization labs. The increased airflow and type of procedures in the space dictate a different approach to EAD. Rather than conventional or radial flow diffusers, hybrid ORs utilize unidirectional diffusers so air comes straight in one direction. These diffusers introduce highly filtered air into a space right above where critical work is happening. This air then expands out and pushes the contaminants away. A body’s natural convection can also protect itself from unclean air, so it is a best practice for diffusers to have very low velocities that do not disrupt the wound’s convective plume. Recent studies have shown that in some surgery types there is not a thermal plume generated at the wound site. In these instances delivering clean air at very low velocity is critical to minimizing entrainment of contaminates since this natural defense does not always occur.

Design specifications for hybrid ORs call for diffusers to be located right over operating tables, and to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 170 the diffusers must cover at least one foot beyond the table and emit no more than 25-35 CFM/ft2. ASHRAE Research Project 1397: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HOSPITAL OPERATING ROOM (OR) AIR DISTRIBUTION results showed that the unidirectional airflow collapses in towards the table and accelerates into the operating room as a result of buoyant and gravitational forces. The amount of collapse and acceleration is affected greatly by the temperature difference between supply air temperature and room air temperature. Titus recommends that the diffuser array extend two to three feet. Doing so will allow for a smaller temperature difference, limiting the collapse and acceleration so patients, nurses, surgeons and all surgical instrumentation are covered by the sterile field. This practice helps reduce costly surgical side infections (SSIs), which make up about 30 percent of all healthcare acquired infections (HAIs).

Patient Rooms

Like hybrid ORs, patient rooms are critical spaces that require a high standard of air quality. Designers do not typically have many major issues designing these rooms; however, when using chilled beams and displacement ventilation systems intuitive designs can lead to airflow patterns that are less than ideal. This can be a concern as an inefficient airflow design fails to minimize the amount of potential particles and pathogens in the air being circulated or re-circulated through the room, translating to higher levels of airborne contaminants potentially leading to HAIs, and thereby raising costs. An EAD in these spaces means lower costs because patients recover more quickly and there is a higher turnover rate. Facilities also do not have to treat or retreat patients for something they acquired during their stay.

Use of chilled beams can be a useful means of developing an EAD within patient room spaces. The most intuitive design is to place a 2-way active beam near the patient bed with the throw introduced into the room perpendicular to the patient’s bed. This is typical for most active beam deigns, placement over the occupant seeks to minimize air velocity and create a uniform temperature around the patient for thermal comfort. Recently the result a CFD study (Comparative Analysis of Overhead Air Supply and Active Chilled Beam HVAC Systems for Patient Room) showed that placement of a 1-way beam over the head of patient could potentially create an airflow pattern that results a single pass system in regards to airborne particulate in the room. A single pass airflow pattern or reduced pass airflow patterns strive to minimize the airborne particulates in the space to reduce HAIs.

Displacement ventilation design also presents a challenge in some cases. The size and floor level installation of these diffusers can lead to their installation in corners where they can be easily blocked by furniture or belongings, significantly reducing their efficacy.  Placement of diffusers on the wall adjacent to the foot of the bed results in the most effective airflow pattern. Placing the exhaust above the patient’s bed at a 15 degree angle away from the head of the bed and towards the foot will be most effective in removing aerosolized saliva containing potentially viable viruses and bacteria from the space.  Additionally, it is critical to have the transfer grille to the toilet space installed at least 6 feet above the finished floor to prevent short circuiting. Since the toilet room is to be negatively pressurized and has a high air change rate a low level transfer grille could lead to the low velocity air discharged from the displacement ventilation unit being exhausted from the patient room without addressing the load in the space.

So why are more facilities implementing displaced ventilation and chilled beams for projects? Both systems are very effective at getting air into spaces at the right temperature, exhausting and/or recirculating it without bringing contaminants back into the occupied space – the primary goals of EAD. In addition, displacement ventilation systems are extremely effective in removing pathogens from patient’s bedside areas.

Isolation Rooms

There are some specialized types of patient rooms that rely heavily on EAD to achieve their individual goals. These are Airborne Infection Isolation (AII) Rooms and Protective Environment (PE) Rooms. PE specifically designed to prevent patients with suppressed immune systems ( i.e. chemotherapy patients, bone marrow or other organ transplant recipients,  AIDS patients). AII rooms are designed to minimize transmission of airborne infectious diseases from an infected patient to staff, visitors, and other patients.

To prevent infections in Isolation rooms, ASHRAE Standard 170-2013 stipulates requirements to help achieve EAD. These requirements include room pressurization, filtration, air change rate, and use specific diffuser type and their location. To prevent migration of particles into the isolation rooms a minimum requirement the room must maintain differential pressure +/-0.01 in wc to the adjacent spaces.  However, ASHRAE Research Project 1344: Cleanroom Pressurization Strategy Update -- Quantification and Validation of Minimum Pressure Differentials for Basic Configurations and Applications has shown that even when maintaining a pressurization of +/-0.01 in wc particles can migrate into the room as people enter and exit the rooms. To minimize transmission of particles into or out of isolation rooms differential pressurization of at least +/- 0.04 in wc or use of a anteroom is recommended.

All air supplied to PE rooms must be HEPA filtered. To further develop air distribution to reduce the chance of Healthcare Acquired Infections (HAIs) use of non-aspirating, unidirectional diffusers are to be installed directly over the patient with exhausts/returns grilles located near the door the patient room. This is to create an airflow pattern within the space where the cleanest air possible flows over the patient first before moving into the rest of the room. However, to achieve effective airflow design in PE room thermal comfort of the patient must also be considered. Patients are going to have very low clo levels and met rates, so additional diffusers must be used to keep the volume and velocity of the air flow out of the non-aspirating diffusers to a comfortable level. Displacement ventilation would complement the non-aspirating diffusers best in this space as it would not disrupt the airflow pattern that is to be developed by the non-aspirating diffuser.

In AII rooms the goal is to prevent transmission of infections from the patient to staff, visitors, or other patients. As such, the location of the exhaust is to be directly over the patient bed or in the wall at the head of the bed, and all air must be exhausted out of the building. To establish effective air distribution in AII rooms, supply diffusers should be installed near the entrance to the room with throw patterns directed towards the patient.

Combination AII/PE Isolation rooms are allowed by ASHRAE Standard 170-2013. Combined Isolation rooms must have an anteroom and must be pressurized to both the corridor and the isolation room itself. The differential pressure must be at least 0.01 in wc, and can be either positive or negative. In combined isolation rooms, air distribution must follow the same guidelines as PE rooms with diffusers located over the patient and exhaust by the anteroom door. And, as with the AII rooms all of the air must be directly exhausted out of the building.


Appropriate use of chilled beams, displacement ventilation, and non-aspirating diffusers play a pivotal role in establishing Effective Airflow Design across many different critical and non-critical spaces. Designing a system that utilizes each piece in the best way possible not only creates an environment that is safer and more comfortable, but is also good for a facility’s bottom line. Lowering readmission rates and reducing the number of Healthcare Acquired Infections are goals all healthcare buildings should strive for; EAD helps make that happen. Be sure to consult a designer before embarking on your next project to determine which layout makes the most sense for your spaces.

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Titus' CB/Critical Environment Product Manager Matthew McLaurin (  

Friday, June 24, 2016

Bottom Access Control Unit: Offering Options for Controls in Tight Spaces

Architects and engineers continue to find many different ways to amaze us by creating beautiful buildings with their designs and innovative concepts. It does not matter if they are designing a building for new construction or retrofitting an existing space, the end result is usually extraordinary and makes the mind wonder how it was created. Often times, the finished designs of the architects and engineers can present unique challenges for the HVAC manufacturer to address by thinking outside-of-the-box to find a solution. Fortunately, Titus is filled with a knowledgeable support staff of experienced industry professionals that are accustomed to meeting challenges like this head-on.

A common problem that we have encountered through the years is with providing alternative control options for terminal units. This issue is especially relevant when dealing with reduced ceiling plenum space. As architects and engineers become more creative with their designs, reduced ceiling plenum space is often an area affected in building construction designs. As a result, there are instances when side-mounted control enclosures are not considered a viable solution for some of these applications. The ever-growing need for another control option prompted us to make the Bottom Control Enclosure as a standard option rather than continue offering it as a special option. This option provides the ability to access the controls of the terminal unit from the bottom, which is important in certain applications which have restricted space to the sides of the terminal units.

Important factors such as maintenance, programming and installation should all be easier if using this option in restricted ceiling plenum spaces. Buildings are designed to be permanent fixtures, yet their systems at some point will need to be checked. Those responsible for the maintaining, programming and installing will now have an easier time accessing the unit if the control box is mounted in a more convenient location rather than one that is mounted in a restricted one.

Presently, this option is available for the ESV and TFS terminal units. The Bottom Control Enclosure has been available since January 2012. We hope this option provides a solution for you and your clients when this situation arises.

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Titus' TU/UFAD Product Manager Derrick Smith ( 

Monday, June 13, 2016

A Modular Air Handler: Configuring to Match Your Exact Needs

Modularity and Flexibility

Selecting an air-handling unit (AHU) to meet the precise needs of a new construction or retrofit project can be difficult. It is important to choose an air-handling solution that meets requirements. In many cases, the engineer or contractor is forced by availability or other considerations to choose one that is oversized. While this may seem acceptable, on closer inspection, this is a less-than-efficient solution. The AHU either leads to energy consumption that is too high, or fails to perform adequately.

Revolution TFX is a concept in AHU design that is based on modularity. It gives engineers the ability to configure an air-distribution solution that matches the needs of the building and its occupants. The Revolution TFX system includes a wide variety of fans, coils, filters, and other options. In addition, many cabinet options and accessories are offered.

With an airflow range of up to 30,000 cubic feet per minute (CFM), Revolution TFX is highly suitable for healthcare, education, government and commercial applications. Jobs can be new construction or retrofit.

Selecting the Correct Fan for Variable Air Volume

With a number of fan options, Revolution TFX allows engineers to choose the most efficient fan for delivery of design and minimum CFM needs. Both are important elements in the overall delivery of air. Variable speed drives, discharge dampers, inlet vanes, etc., are also essential. Typically, the most efficiency is gained by choosing the biggest fan that will also deliver the necessary “turn down” in overall system modulation. Revolution TFX comes with a number of fan options to meet the CFM requirements of the space or spaces in question. The fan and fan motor can be housed in the fan segment of an AHU. This can be done for supply, return and/or exhaust applications. 

While a single fan is adequate for the required system design, systems can be configured with dual fans. In this event, the two fans can use the 50/50 principle, in which they operate together and share the load. This allows you to get more airflow in a smaller cabinet size. A dual-fan configuration can also use a 100/100 principle, wherein a single fan operates and the second fan exists as a backup. If the operational fan fails, this configuration ensures full capacity/airflow until repairs can be made. This is often called for in the case of critical applications such as with some healthcare facilities.

Noise Reduction, Flexibility and Efficiency

According to AMCA guidelines, DWDI fans require straight ducting runs and other considerations, which can increase the overall footprint and impose other design constraints. By using an SWSI Plenum solution, architects and engineers are given greater design flexibility. SWSI Plenum fans allow multiple duct takeoffs from the unit. The openings can be tailored to almost any duct configuration. This means units can be installed in smaller mechanical rooms.

Selecting the correct coil is key to providing the best range of heating and cooling to meet the specific needs of the application. The Revolution TFX system allows for coil options that provide optimum balance without incurring the additional expense of high air-pressure drops. The system can be configured with heating coils that use either hot ware or steam. Cooling coils are available for chilled water, chilled brine, and refrigerant.

Staggered coil options are available for Revolution TFX units. This configuration can increase overall coil face area and allow for greater CFM without increasing cabinet size. This means a reduced footprint while maintaining, or even increasing, overall efficiency. Revolution TFX can include heating coil options that are either gas-fired or electric. In the latter case, a remote control panel can be chosen. Electric heaters are offered in staged or modulating heat to better match project requirements.

The available Multizone (MZ) section is flexible. The MZ can be utilized to provide a multizone installation with multiple zone dampers or ordered without dampers to serve a dual-duct system.

Significant Energy Savings through Recovery

Revolution TFX offers energy recovery wheels that can improve overall system performance by preconditioning the outdoor air supply using adjacent exhaust and outside air streams to transfer heat and humidity. HVAC efficiency can be improved by up to 40%, and dehumidification capacity improved up to 75%. This provides a significant energy-saving advantage as well as a meaningful contribution to the overall energy-efficiency of the building as a whole. The energy recovery wheels used in Revolution TFX systems are available for horizontal or vertical mounting, depending on the overall system design.

Air Filters, Economizers and Mixing Boxes

Revolution TFX units can be configured to accommodate various types of filters, depending on the application. These include angled, flat, rigid, and bag filters. IT can be configured with filters -- ranging from MERV 1 to 14 -- depending on project requirements. The system also offers a range of economizers and mixing boxes, depending on the specific needs of the application. Because different buildings have different occupancy and equipment schedules, and therefore different requirements when it comes to economizers and mixing boxes, the Revolution TFX system will accommodate a complete range of options.

Building pressurization is a key element in building operation that affects overall comfort, air quality and energy efficiency. For this reason, Revolution TFX units are configurable to offer different solutions. For example, full-return economizers, dedicated exhaust economizers, dampers, inlet plenums, etc., to better control building pressure.

One System, Multiple Options

The Revolution TFX system offers a multitude of configuration options to architects, engineers and contractors. A solution can be configured that meets all of the required technical standards, plus the degree of occupant comfort, quality, and efficiency that you expect from a Titus product.

Titus' engineers and representatives are always available to help designers configure units to deliver optimal benefit. 

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Titus' AHU Product Manager Jason Letterman ( 

Thursday, April 21, 2016

FlexRight - Improving Inlet Conditions to Increase Thermal Comfort

The purpose of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system is to provide thermal comfort to the occupied space. The ability of an HVAC system to perform this function depends on system design, equipment, air-outlet type, and inlet conditions. Proper inlet conditions at the air outlet is perhaps the simplest and most overlooked factor. It is something that has a direct effect on the level of thermal comfort in the occupied space.

When air distribution is designed for an occupied space, the outlet velocity of the supply air from a diffuser is assumed to be uniform. This is the case when the supply-duct connection at the diffuser inlet has a sufficient amount of straight duct to ensure the supply air enters the diffuser in a uniform pattern. In reality, inlet-duct connections in the field rarely have an adequate amount of straight duct to ensure an even flow of supply air into the diffuser. For the most part, this is due to space limitations in the ceiling plenum, increased costs, and time constraints during installation. In addition, the use of flex duct as a replacement for hard duct has compounded the problem. As a result, a less than optimum duct connection at the diffuser is being used. It provides a non-uniform air pattern in the occupied space with a decrease in thermal comfort (Figure 1).

To address this problem, a simple and easy solution called the “FlexRight” is available from Titus. FlexRight is a plastic 90-degree elbow that connects the flex duct to the diffuser inlet with a gentle 90-degree transition. This eliminates the problem of kinking or improper positioning of the flex duct that is often found in the field when connected to supply diffusers (Figure 2).

FlexRight is made of 100% recycled material, UL listed, and saves energy by reducing pressure loss in the system. The universal design accommodates all flexible duct sizes and diffuser inlets from 4” to 16”. It provides a less expensive alternative to hard-duct transitions and is easy to transport as well as install. With its simple and universal design, FlexRight is a great choice for both new construction and retrofit applications.

Return grilles, and sometimes supply grilles, are specified for lay-in applications. If the grilles are to be connected to ductwork, a grille size is specified as well as the lay-in module size.

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Titus' GRD Product Manager Mark Costello (

Monday, March 14, 2016

Lay-In Grilles

Return grilles, and sometimes supply grilles, are specified for lay-in applications. If the grilles are to be connected to ductwork, a grille size is specified as well as the lay-in module size.

Most Titus grilles can be ordered in a lay-in frame style. When the size of the grille is less than “module size minus 2”,” the grille must be panel mounted. Panel mounting is welding a grille of a specific size to the rear of a panel designed to mount in a lay-in grid module. This provides a unit sized to the grid opening with a grille size for the ductwork. Using a 24”x24” lay-in frame as an example with a 12”x6” grille, you would go into the ordering software, select the appropriate model grille, and enter 12” (width) and 6” (height). Next, change the module size from “NONE,” to 24”x24”. The frame type will automatically change to “TYPE 3 - LAY-IN,” and the fastening option will change from the default “A - SCREW HOLES,” to “NONE.” You will also notice a price increase for the panel mounting.

As mentioned previously, this works for grilles with a size less than “module size minus 2”,” i.e.: a 16”x16” grille in a 24”x24” module size. But, what if the return grille specified does not have a specific size and only the module size is specified (usually indicating a non-ducted return application)? Or, you need a grille that is actually specified with a size of “module size minus 2”,” like a 22”x22” grille for a 24”x24” module?

In the order-entry software, you enter 22” (width) and 22” (height). The module-size option will not let you enter 24”x24”. The answer is simple with just a little bit of grille knowledge. All grilles have overall dimensions of size plus 1 ¾”, so a 22”x22” grille results in an overall dimension of 23 ¾” x 23 ¾”, which happens to be the overall dimension of a type 3 lay-in frame for a 24”x24” module.

Although the frame style will remain shown as “1 - SURFACE MOUNT,” the unit will work perfectly in a lay-in application. The most important thing to remember is to change the fastening option from the default “A - SCREW HOLES,” to “0 - NONE.” We have no way to remove holes from a frame after the grille has shipped, and most customers do not want visible mounting holes in the face of a lay-in product. So, if the return grille is for a non-ducted application -- or a specific grille size is not specified, only the module size – order the grille size as “module size minus 2”.” Not only will you get a full-face return that is much more aesthetically appealing, but it is cheaper!

We offer a range of panels for common lay-in grid module sizes in three different frames, but occasionally a non-standard module size or an NT frame style is required. This is not a problem, as you should simply use your Titus Contact Directory to submit the request to one of our GRD application engineers. We routinely provide NT and non-standard module frames upon request. Renderings may already be available that can help verify your customer’s product requirements. A slight up-charge is required and the special units can usually be supplied in standard lead times. 

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Titus' GRD Product Manager Mark Costello (

Tuesday, February 2, 2016

Liner Specifications and Standards

The choice of lining material for any air-distribution system is an important consideration for the specifying engineer. There are many options available and each material has a potential impact on project cost and thermal/acoustical performance. While the traditional lining materials in the industry have been fiberglass-based, there are other alternatives available today. These new materials have many advantages from the standpoint of physical properties as well as cost and performance. In order to successfully promote these new materials, it is helpful to have a better understanding of current industry standards and how they are applied.

There are several agencies that set standards for ductwork and equipment-lining materials. They include the American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL). While most of the standards they publish must be purchased and can be costly to acquire, it is often not necessary to know more than the title of the standard when determining whether a material is in compliance. Here are some of the most frequently referenced standards:

  • ASTM C411 - Standard Test Method for Hot-Surface Performance of High-Temperature Thermal Insulation

  • ASTM C518 - Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of Heat Flow-Meter Apparatus

  • ASTM C665 - Standard Specification for Mineral-Fiber Blanket Thermal Insulation for Light Frame Construction and Manufactured Housing

  • ASTM C739 - Standard Specification for Cellulosic Fiber Loose-Fill Insulation

  • ASTM C1071 - Standard Specification for Fibrous Glass Duct-Lining Insulation (Thermal and Sound-Absorbing Material)

  • ASTM C1104 - Standard Test Method for Determining the Water Vapor Sorption of Unfaced Mineral-Fiber Insulation

  • ASTM C1338 - Standard Test Method for Determining Fungi Resistance of Insulation Materials and Facings

  • ASTM E84 - Standard Test Method for Surface-Burning Characteristics of Building Materials

  • ASTM E96 - Standard Test Methods for Water-Vapor Transmission of Materials

  • ASTM G21 - Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymeric Materials to Fungi

  • ASTM G22 - Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Plastics to Bacteria

  • NFPA 90A - Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilation Systems

  • NFPA 90B - Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems

  • NFPA 225 - Standard Method of Test of Surface-Burning Characteristics of Building Materials

  • UL 181 - Standard for Factory-Made Air Ducts and Air Connectors

  • UL 723 – Standard for Test for Surface-Burning Characteristics of Building Materials

These standards are commonly referenced in equipment specifications, and most of them only cause confusion. The first thing to note is that each of these standards is either a test method or specification. Test methods define a procedure for measuring a physical property associated with a material. These procedures are often material specific. Specifications (often simply entitled “Standard”) generally reference several acceptable test methods and set maximum or minimum limitations on the result of a test for compliance.

In order to determine compliance with a specification requirement, it is important to note whether the referenced standard is an actual specification or just a method of test. Since there is no way to comply with a test standard, the inclusion of test standards in a specification often causes confusion for vendors. Another common problem involves specification that describe a specific lining material, but reference standards that do not apply to that specific material. All of these issues can be identified and clarified by simply knowing the full titles of the referenced standards.

In addition to the aforementioned ASTM, NFPA and UL standards, there are additional industry standards published by the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). Traditionally, ASHRAE publishes test standards for equipment and guidelines for environmental conditions such as ventilation, indoor-air quality and thermal comfort. AHRI concentrates mainly on equipment ratings and performance certification. USGBC publishes the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard.

Since most new construction projects will be designed with a goal toward achieving LEED certification, it is important to know what the USGBC requirements are for ductwork and equipment linings. According to the latest LEED 2009 standard, in order to achieve Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Prerequisite 1, the building design must meet the minimum requirements of Sections 4 through 7 of ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor-Air Quality. Under Section 5 ‘Systems and Equipment,’ it states that all airstream surfaces (with the exception of sheet metal surfaces and metal fasteners) shall be determined to be resistant to mold growth in accordance with a standardized test method such as those found in UL 181 or ASTM C1338. In addition, all airstream surfaces (with the exception of sheet metal surfaces and metal fasteners) shall be determined to be resistant to air erosion in accordance with the test method described in UL 181. In other words, any lining material that can meet the requirements of UL 181 is acceptable for use in any LEED-certified building.

Here are some typical questions about liner specifications and standards:

Does that mean I can put exposed dual-density fiberglass in a LEED Platinum building?

Yes, it does. However, it may not be the best choice. Many engineers are looking for alternatives to fiberglass because no one knows how that material may be treated in the future. Today, there are innovative new lining materials that can provide improved indoor-air quality with little if any increase in cost.  

What kind of ‘new liners’ are you talking about?

Titus has seized the initiative to eliminate fiberglass from many of our product lines. We currently offer our latest EcoShield liner in ½” or 1”-thickness with cloth-facing for the same price as fiberglass. This material is made from pre-consumer recycled natural cotton fibers chemically-treated to be fire-retardant and anti-microbial. The same material is also available with a scrim-reinforced foil-facing for critical environmental applications for a modest up-charge. We also offer our FibreFree liner in 3/8” or 1”-thickness. This material is called engineered polymer foam insulation (EPFI). It contains an anti-microbial agent throughout to fight mold growth and cannot absorb any moisture, making it ideal for humid climates and applications wherein moisture can cause problems.

I submitted EcoShield on a project recently, but was rejected by the engineer because I could not prove that this material meets ASTM C1071. Why does EcoShield not meet ASTM C1071?

EcoShield technically cannot meet ASTM C1071 because that standard only applies to fiberglass products. That does not mean that EcoShield is not suitable as a duct-lining material, because it may actually outperform fiberglass in the same tests. The engineer’s standard specification probably only takes into account fiberglass products and does not address the new liners available today. We suggest providing EcoShield submittal sheets, explaining the advantages and encouraging him to update his standard specification to include newer materials. So long as the lining materials meet UL 181, they should be acceptable.

With a better understanding of the industry standards, it should be easier to promote new and better lining materials to the engineering community.

Please direct questions toward Titus Communications ( and/or Titus' Chief Engineer Randy Zimmerman (